General Information
Drug ID
DR00133
Drug Name
Metformin
Synonyms
1,1-Dimethyl biguanide; 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide; 3-(diaminomethylidene)-1,1-dimethylguanidine; DMGG; Diabetosan; Diabex; Diabex (TN); Diaformin (TN); Dianben (TN); Dimethylbiguanide; Dimethylbiguanidine; Dimethyldiguanide; Dimethylguanylguanidine; Fluamine; Flumamine; Fortamet (TN); Gen-Metformin; Glifage; Gliguanid; Glucophage (TN); Glumetza; Glumetza (TN); Glycon; Haurymelin; Islotin; LA-6023; Melbin; Metformin (USAN/INN); Metformin [USAN:INN:BAN]; Metformina; Metformina [DCIT]; Metformina [Spanish]; Metformine; Metformine [INN-French]; Metforminum; Metforminum [INN-Latin]; Metiguanide; N,N-Dimethylbiguanide; N,N-Dimethyldiguanide; N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide; N1,N1-Dimethylbiguanide; NNDG; Nu-Metformin; Obimet (TN); Riomet (TN); Siofor
Drug Type
Small molecular drug
Indication Type 2 diabetes [ICD11: 5A11] Approved [1]
Therapeutic Class
Hypoglycemic Agents
Structure
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3D MOL 2D MOL
Formula
C4H11N5
Canonical SMILES
CN(C)C(=N)N=C(N)N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H11N5/c1-9(2)4(7)8-3(5)6/h1-2H3,(H5,5,6,7,8)
InChIKey
XZWYZXLIPXDOLR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS Number
CAS 657-24-9
Pharmaceutical Properties Molecular Weight 129.167 Topological Polar Surface Area 91.5
Heavy Atom Count 9 Rotatable Bond Count 2
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count 3 Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count 1
PubChem CID
4091
PubChem SID
103508547 , 104098198 , 104253645 , 104305401 , 104669488 , 11112469 , 11364723 , 11367285 , 11369847 , 11372888 , 11375447 , 11378011 , 11466032 , 11467152 , 11485664 , 11534102 , 15297229 , 26038962 , 29223200 , 4393083 , 46507752 , 47206702 , 47216870 , 47589085 , 47810852 , 48110542 , 48110543 , 48185089 , 48334597 , 48416229 , 49698302 , 49893836 , 50100453 , 50100454 , 53788989 , 56311366 , 57288471 , 57322135 , 57665782 , 608268 , 76758036 , 7797077 , 7979913 , 81682410 , 85789453 , 89779827 , 92308755 , 93132799 , 93166855 , 9360
ChEBI ID
ChEBI:6801
TTD Drug ID
D0D7LA
DT(s) Transporting This Drug BCRP Transporter Info Breast cancer resistance protein Substrate [2]
ENT4 Transporter Info Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4 Substrate [3]
MATE1 Transporter Info Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 Substrate [4]
MATE2 Transporter Info Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 2 Substrate [5]
OCT1 Transporter Info Organic cation transporter 1 Substrate [6]
OCT2 Transporter Info Organic cation transporter 2 Substrate [6]
OCT3 Transporter Info Organic cation transporter 3 Substrate [7]
THTR1 Transporter Info Thiamine transporter 1 Substrate [8]
THTR2 Transporter Info Thiamine transporter 2 Substrate [8]
Drug-Transporter Activity Data
Drug-Transporter Activity Data MATE1 Transporter Info Km = 202 microM Human cervical cancer cell line (Hela)-MATE1 [4]
MATE1 Transporter Info Km = 227 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-MATE1 [9]
MATE1 Transporter Info Km = 780 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-MATE1 [5]
MATE2 Transporter Info Km = 1050 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-MATE2K [10]
MATE2 Transporter Info Km = 1980 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-MATE2K [5]
OCT1 Transporter Info Km = 2160 microM Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-OCT1 [7]
OCT1 Transporter Info Km = 1060 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OCT1 [11]
OCT1 Transporter Info Km = 1470 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OCT1 [6]
OCT1 Transporter Info Km = 5450 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OCT1 [12]
OCT2 Transporter Info Km = 680 microM Human cervical cancer cell line (Hela)-OCT2 [4]
OCT2 Transporter Info Km = 990 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OCT2 [6]
OCT2 Transporter Info Km = 1072 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OCT2 [11]
OCT2 Transporter Info Km = 3171 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OCT2 [13]
OCT2 Transporter Info Km = 3356 microM Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OCT2 [14]
OCT3 Transporter Info Km = 2260 microM Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-OCT3 [7]
THTR2 Transporter Info Km = 1150 microM Human embryonic kidney cells-hTHTR2 [8]
References
1 Metformin was approved by FDA. The official website of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019)
2 Role of human placental apical membrane transporters in the efflux of glyburide, rosiglitazone, and metformin. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Apr;202(4):383.e1-7.
3 Metformin: from mechanisms of action to therapies. Cell Metab. 2014 Dec 2;20(6):953-66.
4 Human multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1/SLC47A1) transporter: functional characterization, interaction with OCT2 (SLC22A2), and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010 Apr;298(4):F997-F1005.
5 Substrate specificity of MATE1 and MATE2-K, human multidrug and toxin extrusions/H(+)-organic cation antiporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 15;74(2):359-71.
6 Metformin is a superior substrate for renal organic cation transporter OCT2 rather than hepatic OCT1. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005 Oct;20(5):379-86.
7 Expression of organic cation transporters OCT1 (SLC22A1) and OCT3 (SLC22A3) is affected by genetic factors and cholestasis in human liver. Hepatology. 2009 Oct;50(4):1227-40.
8 Metformin Is a Substrate and Inhibitor of the Human Thiamine Transporter, THTR-2 (SLC19A3). Mol Pharm. 2015 Dec 7;12(12):4301-10.
9 Genetic variants in multidrug and toxic compound extrusion-1, hMATE1, alter transport function. Pharmacogenomics J. 2009 Apr;9(2):127-36.
10 Identification and functional characterization of a new human kidney-specific H+/organic cation antiporter, kidney-specific multidrug and toxin extrusion 2. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Aug;17(8):2127-35.
11 Effects of tetraalkylammonium compounds with different affinities for organic cation transporters on the pharmacokinetics of metformin. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2007 Dec;28(9):501-10.
12 Genotype-dependent effects of inhibitors of the organic cation transporter, OCT1: predictions of metformin interactions. Pharmacogenomics J. 2011 Dec;11(6):400-11.
13 Functional characterization of the human organic cation transporter 2 variant p.270Ala>Ser. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jun;37(6):1312-8.
14 Structural determinants of inhibitor interaction with the human organic cation transporter OCT2 (SLC22A2). Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009 Apr;379(4):337-48.

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