General Information and Variability Data of DT
DT ID DTD0021
Gene Name SLC15A1
Protein Name Peptide transporter 1
Synonyms HPECT1; HPEPT1; Intestinal H(+)/peptide cotransporter; Oligopeptide transporter, small intestine isoform; PEPT1; SLC15A1; Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Gene ID
6564
UniProt ID
P46059
TCDB ID
2.A.17.4.9
DT Family Proton-Dependent Oligopeptide Transporter (POT/PTR) Family ;
Function This tranporter mediates intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides and may constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Disease(s) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ICD-11: 6A05]
Cytomegalovirus infections [ICD-11: 1D82]
High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00]
Influenza virus [ICD-11: 1E30-1E32]
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma [ICD-11: 2A90.C]
Chronic bronchitis [ICD-11: CA20.1]
Streptococcal pharyngitis [ICD-11: 1B51]
Shingles [ICD-11: 1.00E+91]
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections [ICD-11: CA40.0Y]
Genetic Polymorphisms & Epigenetic Regulations of DT
Species-, Tissue- and Disease-specific Protein Abundances of DT
Exogenous Factor Altering DT Activity
Approved Drug(s) Transported by This DT Aminolevulinic acid Drug Info Photodynamic therapy [ICD-11: EK90.0] Approved [1]
Amoxicillin Drug Info Streptococcal pharyngitis [ICD-11: 1B51] Approved [2]
Ampicillin Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [3]
Benazepril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [4]
Bestatin Drug Info Acute myeloid leukemia [ICD-11: 2A60] Approved [5]
Captopril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [6]
Cefaclor Drug Info Gram-positive & negative bacteria infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [7]
Cefadroxil Drug Info Gram-positive & negative bacteria infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [8]
Cefamandole Drug Info Infections by susceptible microorganisms [ICD-11: 1H0Z] Approved [9]
Cefazolin Drug Info Methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus [ICD-11: 1B74.0] Approved [10]
Cefdinir Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [11]
Cefixime Drug Info Streptococcus bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1C41] Approved [12]
Cefmetazole Drug Info Urinary tract and skin bacteria infections [ICD-11: GC08] Approved [9]
Cefoxitin Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [10]
Cefpodoxime Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [10]
Cefsulodin Drug Info Pseudomonas infection [ICD-11: CA40.05, KB24] Approved [9]
Ceftibuten Drug Info Chronic bronchitis [ICD-11: CA20.1] Approved [13]
Ceftriaxone Drug Info Pneumonia [ICD-11: CA40] Approved [9]
Cefuroxime axetil Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [9]
Cephalexin Drug Info Gram-positive bacteria infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [14]
Cephaloglycin Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [15]
Cephradine Drug Info Streptococcus pneumoniae infections [ICD-11: CA40.0Y] Approved [16]
Cyclacillin Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [17]
Dexamethasone Drug Info Rheumatoid arthritis [ICD-11: FA20] Approved [18]
Dicloxacillin Drug Info Susceptible gram-positive bacteria infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [17]
Enalapril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [19]
Enalaprilat Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [20]
Eprosartan Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [8]
Flucloxacillin Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [10]
Fosinopril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [4]
Furosemide Drug Info Edema associated with congestive heart failure [ICD-11: BD10] Approved [18]
Irbesartan Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [8]
Lisdexamfetamine Drug Info Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ICD-11: 6A05] Approved [21]
Lisinopril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [18]
Losartan Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [8]
Metoprolol Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [18]
Midodrine Drug Info Prostate hyperplasia [ICD-11: GA90] Approved [17]
Moexipril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [4]
Oseltamivir Drug Info Influenza virus [ICD-11: 1E30-1E32] Approved [22]
Perindopril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [4]
Piperacillin Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [10]
Ramipril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [4]
Ribavirin Drug Info Hepatitis C virus infection [ICD-11: 1E50.2, 1E51.1] Approved [23]
Spirapril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [4]
Sulfasalazine Drug Info Rheumatoid arthritis [ICD-11: FA20] Approved [18]
Sulpiride Drug Info Schizophrenia [ICD-11: 6A20] Approved [24]
Temocapril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [25]
Temocaprilate Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [20]
Trandolapril Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [4]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Shingles [ICD-11: 1.00E+91] Approved [26]
Valganciclovir Drug Info Cytomegalovirus infections [ICD-11: 1D82] Approved [27]
Valsartan Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [8]
Clinical Trial Drug(s) Transported by This DT Benzylpenicillin Drug Info Gram-positive bacteria infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Phase 4 [28]
N-acetylaspartylglutamate Drug Info Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis [ICD-11: 9A60.5] Phase 4 [29]
Carnosine Drug Info Schizophrenia [ICD-11: 6A20] Phase 2/3 [30]
Withdrawn, Discontinued or Preclinical Drug(s) Transported by This DT Cephaloridine Drug Info Urinary tract infections [ICD-11: GC08] Withdrawn [9]
Ceronapril Drug Info Major depressive disorder [ICD-11: 6A70.3] Discontinued in Phase 2 [15]
Metampicillin Drug Info Bacterial infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Preclinical [17]
QSP Drug Info Acetabular fracture [ICD-11: NB52.13] Preclinical [31]
Endogenous Substrate(s) H+
Drug-DT Affinity Assessed by Cell Line
Drug(s) with Drug-DT Affinity Data Aminolevulinic acid Drug Info Oocytes-PEPT1 Km = 394 microM [32]
Aminolevulinic acid Drug Info Oocytes-PEPT1 Km = 1600 microM [1]
Bestatin Drug Info Human enterocyte-like 2 cells (Caco-2)-PEPT1 Km = 340 microM [5]
Cefadroxil Drug Info Human cervical cancer cell line (Hela)-PEPT1 Km = 7.97 microM [8]
Cephalexin Drug Info Human enterocyte-like 2 cells (Caco-2)-PEPT1 Km = 7.97 microM [33]
Oseltamivir Drug Info Human cervical cancer cell line (Hela)-PEPT1 Km = 8590 microM [22]
Oseltamivir Drug Info Human enterocyte-like 2 cells (Caco-2)-PEPT1 Km = 6540 microM [22]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-PEPT1 Km = 1640 microM [34]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-PEPT1 Km = 2200 microM [35]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-PEPT1 Km = 2700 microM [35]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-PEPT1 Km = 5400 microM [35]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-PEPT1 Km = 6600 microM [35]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-PEPT1 Km = 7400 microM [35]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-PEPT1 Km = 2.2 microM [36]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-PEPT1 Km = 7.4 microM [36]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Human enterocyte-like 2 cells (Caco-2)-PEPT1 Km = 292 microM [37]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells-PEPT1 Km = 3.8 microM [36]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Oocytes-PEPT1 Km = 5940 microM [38]
Valacyclovir Drug Info Xenopus oocytes-PEPT1 Km = 5.9 microM [36]
References
1 Transport of the photodynamic therapy agent 5-aminolevulinic acid by distinct H+-coupled nutrient carriers coexpressed in the small intestine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jan;332(1):220-8.
2 Interactions of amoxicillin and cefaclor with human renal organic anion and peptide transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Apr;34(4):547-55.
3 Several hPepT1-transported drugs are substrates of the Escherichia coli proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter YdgR. Res Microbiol. 2017 Jun;168(5):443-449.
4 Transport of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors by H+/peptide transporters revisited. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):432-41.
5 Dipeptide transporters in apical and basolateral membranes of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Am J Physiol. 1993 Aug;265(2 Pt 1):G289-94.
6 Membrane transporters in drug development. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2010 Mar;9(3):215-36.
7 Protein hydrolysate-induced cholecystokinin secretion from enteroendocrine cells is indirectly mediated by the intestinal oligopeptide transporter PepT1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 May;300(5):G895-902.
8 High-affinity interaction of sartans with H+/peptide transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):143-9.
9 Intestinal transport of beta-lactam antibiotics: analysis of the affinity at the H+/peptide symporter (PEPT1), the uptake into Caco-2 cell monolayers and the transepithelial flux. Pharm Res. 1999 Jan;16(1):55-61.
10 Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses of beta-lactam antibiotics and tripeptides as substrates of the mammalian H+/peptide cotransporter PEPT1. J Med Chem. 2005 Jun 30;48(13):4410-9.
11 Transporter-mediated drug delivery: recent progress and experimental approaches. Drug Discov Today. 2004 Aug 15;9(16):712-20.
12 Flavonoids with epidermal growth factor-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity stimulate PEPT1-mediated cefixime uptake into human intestinal epithelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Oct;299(1):351-7.
13 Increased protein level of PEPT1 intestinal H+-peptide cotransporter upregulates absorption of glycylsarcosine and ceftibuten in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 Apr;288(4):G664-70.
14 Direct evidence for efficient transport and minimal metabolism of L-cephalexin by oligopeptide transporter 1 in budded baculovirus fraction. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Aug;32(8):1459-61.
15 Pharmaceutical and pharmacological importance of peptide transporters. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 May;60(5):543-85.
16 Recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by rat peptide transporters, PEPT1 and PEPT2, in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):F706-11.
17 Transport characteristics of a novel peptide transporter 1 substrate, antihypotensive drug midodrine, and its amino acid derivatives. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jul;318(1):455-60.
18 Peptide transporter substrate identification during permeability screening in drug discovery: comparison of transfected MDCK-hPepT1 cells to Caco-2 cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2007 Apr;30(4):507-18.
19 The intestinal H+/peptide symporter PEPT1: structure-affinity relationships. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2004 Jan;21(1):53-60.
20 Transporter-mediated Drug Interactions. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2002;17(4):253-74.
21 Absorption of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and its enzymatic conversion to d-amphetamine. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2010 Jun 24;6:317-27.
22 Oseltamivir (tamiflu) is a substrate of peptide transporter 1. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Aug;37(8):1676-81.
23 Transport of levovirin prodrugs in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. J Pharm Sci. 2006 Jun;95(6):1318-25.
24 Studies on intestinal absorption of sulpiride (2): transepithelial transport of sulpiride across the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Oct;25(10):1345-50.
25 The role of transporters in drug interactions. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2006 Apr;27(5):501-17.
26 Valacyclovir: a substrate for the intestinal and renal peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 May 19;246(2):470-5.
27 Transport of valganciclovir, a ganciclovir prodrug, via peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. J Pharm Sci. 2000 Jun;89(6):781-9.
28 Drug transport in corneal epithelium and blood-retina barrier: emerging role of transporters in ocular pharmacokinetics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2006 Nov 15;58(11):1136-63.
29 Molecular interactions between dipeptides, drugs and the human intestinal H+ -oligopeptide cotransporter hPEPT1. J Physiol. 2006 Jul 1;574(Pt 1):149-66.
30 Transforming dietary peptides in promising lead compounds: the case of bioavailable carnosine analogs. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):111-26.
31 Tripeptides of RS1 (RSC1A1) inhibit a monosaccharide-dependent exocytotic pathway of Na+-D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 with high affinity. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 28;282(39):28501-13.
32 Delta-aminolevulinic acid transport by intestinal and renal peptide transporters and its physiological and clinical implications. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jun 15;101(12):2761-7.
33 Effects of progesterone and norethisterone on cephalexin uptake in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Apr;27(4):559-63.
34 Interactions of a nonpeptidic drug, valacyclovir, with the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) expressed in a mammalian cell line. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Apr;289(1):448-54.
35 Effect of ionization on the variable uptake of valacyclovir via the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPepT1) in CHO cells. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 Jul;21(5):165-74.
36 Significance of peptide transporter 1 in the intestinal permeability of valacyclovir in wild-type and PepT1 knockout mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 2013 Mar;41(3):608-14.
37 5'-Amino acid esters of antiviral nucleosides, acyclovir, and AZT are absorbed by the intestinal PEPT1 peptide transporter. Pharm Res. 1998 Aug;15(8):1154-9.
38 Direct evidence for peptide transporter (PepT1)-mediated uptake of a nonpeptide prodrug, valacyclovir. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Sep 18;250(2):246-51.

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