General Information and Variability Data of DT
DT ID DTD0024
Gene Name SLC22A6
Protein Name Organic anion transporter 1
Synonyms OAT1; PAH transporter; PAHT; ROAT1; Renal organic anion transporter 1; SLC22A6; Solute carrier family 22 member 6; hOAT1; hPAHT; hROAT1
Gene ID
9356
UniProt ID
Q4U2R8
TCDB ID
2.A.1.19.31
DT Family Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS)
Organic Cation Transporter (OCT) Family
Tissue Specificity Strongly expressed in kidney and to a lowerextent in liver, skeletal muscle, brain and placenta. Found at thebasolateral membrane of the proximal tubule.
Function This transporter involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p-aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido-3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Disease(s) High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00]
Human immunodeficiency virus infection [ICD-11: 1C62.Z]
Influenza virus [ICD-11: 1E30-1E32]
Leukemia [ICD-11: 2A60-2B33]
Sepsis [ICD-11: 1G40-1G41]
Hepatitis B virus infection [ICD-11: 1E51.0, 1E50.1]
Herpes simplex virus infection [ICD-11: 1F00]
Streptococcal pharyngitis [ICD-11: 1B51]
Methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus [ICD-11: 1B74.0]
Genetic Polymorphisms & Epigenetic Regulations of DT
Species-, Tissue- and Disease-specific Protein Abundances of DT
Exogenous Factor Altering DT Activity
Approved Drug(s) Transported by This DT Acyclovir Drug Info Shingles [ICD-11: 1.00E+91] Approved [1]
Adefovir Drug Info Herpes simplex virus infection [ICD-11: 1F00] Approved [2]
Alprostadil Drug Info Erectile dysfunction [ICD-11: HA01] Approved [3]
Amoxicillin Drug Info Streptococcal pharyngitis [ICD-11: 1B51] Approved [4]
Cefaclor Drug Info Gram-positive & negative bacteria infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [5]
Cefazolin Drug Info Methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus [ICD-11: 1B74.0] Approved [6]
Ceftizoxime Drug Info Gram-positive & negative bacteria infections [ICD-11: 1A00-1H0Z] Approved [5]
Cidofovir Drug Info Cytomegalovirus infections [ICD-11: 1D82] Approved [7]
Dinoprostone Drug Info Medical abortion [ICD-11: JA00.1] Approved [8]
Edaravone Drug Info Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ICD-11: 8B60.0] Approved [9]
Famotidine Drug Info Peptic ulcer [ICD-11: DA61] Approved [10]
Fluorescein Drug Info Ocular disease [ICD-11: 9E1Z] Approved [11]
Furosemide Drug Info Edema associated with congestive heart failure [ICD-11: BD10] Approved [12]
Ganciclovir Drug Info Cytomegalovirus infections [ICD-11: 1D82] Approved [1]
Meropenem Drug Info Pneumonia [ICD-11: CA40] Approved [13]
Methotrexate Drug Info Leukemia [ICD-11: 2A60-2B33] Approved [14]
Mycophenolic acid Drug Info Organ transplant rejection [ICD-11: NE84] Approved [15]
Olmesartan medoxomil Drug Info High blood pressure [ICD-11: BA00] Approved [16]
Oseltamivir Drug Info Influenza virus [ICD-11: 1E30-1E32] Approved [5]
Tenofovir Drug Info Human immunodeficiency virus infection [ICD-11: 1C62.Z] Approved [17]
Trifluridine Drug Info Herpes simplex virus infection [ICD-11: 1F00] Approved [18]
Zalcitabine Drug Info Human immunodeficiency virus infection [ICD-11: 1C62.Z] Approved [19]
Zidovudine Drug Info Human immunodeficiency virus infection [ICD-11: 1C62.Z] Approved [1]
Clinical Trial Drug(s) Transported by This DT Dimesna Drug Info Diabetic nephropathy [ICD-11: GB61] Phase 3 [20]
Uric acid Drug Info Acute ischemic stroke [ICD-11: 8B11] Phase 2/3 [21]
Withdrawn, Discontinued or Preclinical Drug(s) Transported by This DT Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Renal function tests [ICD-11: MG02] Withdrawn [22]
Prostaglandin f2Alpha Drug Info Solid tumours [ICD-11: 2D4Z] Preclinical [8]
Endogenous Substrate(s) Organic anions
Endogenous Metabolites (EMs) Handled by This DT 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
2-hydroxyisovalerate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
2-oxo-3-methylvalerate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
3-hydroxybutyrate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
3-hydroxyisobutyrate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
3-hydroxypropionate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
3-hydroxyvalerate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
3-methylcrotonylglycine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
4-hydroxyphenylacetate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
4-hydroxyphenyllactate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
Alpha-ketoglutarate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
Benzoate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
Creatinine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [24]
Hexanoylglycine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
Indole lactic acid EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Indoxyl sulfate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Kynurenine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Methionine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
N-acetylaspartate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
N-acetylglycine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
N2,N2-Dimethylguanosine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Orotate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
Pantothenic acid EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Phenyl sulfate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Phenylacetyl glycine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Propionylglycine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
Pyridoxic acid EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Thymidine EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Uracil EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [23]
Urate EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Xanthurenic acid EM Info Identified using Oat1 knockout mice [25]
Drug-DT Affinity Assessed by Cell Line
Drug(s) with Drug-DT Affinity Data 6-Carboxyfluorescein Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-OAT1 Km = 3.93 microM [26]
Acyclovir Drug Info Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OAT1 Km = 839 microM [27]
Acyclovir Drug Info Proximal tubule (S2) cells-OAT1 Km = 342 microM [1]
Adefovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-OAT1 Km = 23.8 microM [2]
Adefovir Drug Info Oocytes-OAT1 Km = 30 microM [28]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-OAT1 Km = 15.4 microM [2]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Human cervical cancer cell line (Hela)-OAT1 Km = 5 microM [29]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OAT1 Km = 20 microM [27]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OAT1 Km = 28 microM [30]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells-OAT1 Km = 8.5 microM [31]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Monkey kidney fibroblast-like cell (COS)7-OAT1 Km = 8.9 microM [32]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info OK cells-OAT1 Km = 22 microM [33]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Oocytes-OAT1 Km = 3.9 microM [34]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Oocytes-OAT1 Km = 4 microM [28]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Oocytes-OAT1 Km = 9.3 microM [35]
Aminohippuric acid Drug Info Proximal tubule (S2) cells-OAT1 Km = 20.1 microM [36]
Cidofovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-OAT1 Km = 30 microM [37]
Cidofovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-OAT1 Km = 58 microM [2]
Cidofovir Drug Info Oocytes-OAT1 Km = 46 microM [28]
Dimesna Drug Info Human cervical cancer cell line (Hela)-OAT1 Km = 636 microM [20]
Dinoprostone Drug Info Proximal tubule (S2) cells-OAT1 Km = 0.97 microM [8]
Edaravone Drug Info Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OAT1 Km = 10.8 microM [9]
Ganciclovir Drug Info Proximal tubule (S2) cells-OAT1 Km = 896 microM [1]
Glutarate Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-OAT1 Km = 10.7 microM [26]
Methotrexate Drug Info Oocytes-OAT1 Km = 724 microM [38]
Methotrexate Drug Info Proximal tubule (S2) cells-OAT1 Km = 554 microM [39]
Ochratoxin A Drug Info Proximal tubule (S2) cells-OAT1 Km = 0.42 microM [40]
Olmesartan medoxomil Drug Info Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OAT1 Km = 0.0683 microM [16]
Prostaglandin f2Alpha Drug Info Proximal tubule (S2) cells-OAT1 Km = 0.575 microM [8]
Tenofovir Drug Info Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-OAT1 Km = 33.8 microM [17]
Uric acid Drug Info Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293)-OAT1 Km = 197.6 microM [21]
Uric acid Drug Info Proximal tubule (S2) cells-OAT1 Km = 947 microM [41]
Zidovudine Drug Info Proximal tubule (S2) cells-OAT1 Km = 45.9 microM [1]
References
1 Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal antiviral transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):918-24.
2 Cytotoxicity of antiviral nucleotides adefovir and cidofovir is induced by the expression of human renal organic anion transporter 1. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000 Mar;11(3):383-93.
3 Prostaglandin transporter (OATP2A1/SLCO2A1) contributes to local disposition of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived PGE3. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2016 Jan;122:10-7.
4 The anti-influenza drug oseltamivir exhibits low potential to induce pharmacokinetic drug interactions via renal secretion-correlation of in vivo and in vitro studies. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Jan;30(1):13-9.
5 FDA Drug Development and Drug Interactions
6 Expression levels of renal organic anion transporters (OATs) and their correlation with anionic drug excretion in patients with renal diseases. Pharm Res. 2004 Jan;21(1):61-7.
7 Renal transport of adefovir, cidofovir, and tenofovir by SLC22A family members (hOAT1, hOAT3, and hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2007 Apr;24(4):811-5.
8 Human organic anion transporters and human organic cation transporters mediate renal transport of prostaglandins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Apr;301(1):293-8.
9 Human organic anion transporters 1 (hOAT1/SLC22A6) and 3 (hOAT3/SLC22A8) transport edaravone (MCI-186; 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) and its sulfate conjugate. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Aug;35(8):1429-34.
10 Different transport properties between famotidine and cimetidine by human renal organic ion transporters (SLC22A). Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Oct 25;503(1-3):25-30.
11 Apical expression or expression in a non polarized cell of hOAT1 inverses regulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) as compared to basolateral hOAT1. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2004;14(3):177-86.
12 Interactions of human organic anion transporters with diuretics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Mar;308(3):1021-9.
13 Characterization of CS-023 (RO4908463), a novel parenteral carbapenem antibiotic, and meropenem as substrates of human renal transporters. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2007 Feb 25;22(1):41-7.
14 Transport of aminopterin by human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3: Comparison with methotrexate. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2010;25(2):163-9.
15 Interaction and transport characteristics of mycophenolic acid and its glucuronide via human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 30;74(1):161-8.
16 Multiple human isoforms of drug transporters contribute to the hepatic and renal transport of olmesartan, a selective antagonist of the angiotensin II AT1-receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Dec;35(12):2166-76.
17 Human renal organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) and its role in the nephrotoxicity of antiviral nucleotide analogs. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001 Apr-Jul;20(4-7):641-8.
18 Rat multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (rOAT1) transports zidovudine, acyclovir, and other antiviral nucleoside analogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Sep;294(3):844-9.
19 Interaction of zalcitabine with human organic anion transporter 1. Pharmazie. 2006 May;61(5):491-2.
20 In vitro and in vivo assessment of renal drug transporters in the disposition of mesna and dimesna. J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Apr;52(4):530-42.
21 Involvement of uric acid transporters in alteration of serum uric acid level by angiotensin II receptor blockers. Pharm Res. 2008 Mar;25(3):639-46.
22 Interactions of human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) with substances associated with forensic toxicology. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2011 Jul;13(4):180-5.
23 Decreased renal organic anion secretion and plasma accumulation of endogenous organic anions in OAT1 knock-out mice. J Biol Chem. 2006 Feb 24;281(8):5072-83.
24 A role for the organic anion transporter OAT3 in renal creatinine secretion in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012 May 15;302(10):F1293-9.
25 Untargeted metabolomics identifies enterobiome metabolites and putative uremic toxins as substrates of organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1). J Proteome Res. 2011 Jun 3;10(6):2842-51.
26 Fluorescence-based assay for the interaction of small molecules with the human renal organic anion transporter 1. Anal Biochem. 2000 Jul 15;283(1):49-55.
27 Expression of organic anion transporter 2 in the human kidney and its potential role in the tubular secretion of guanine-containing antiviral drugs. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012 Mar;40(3):617-24.
28 The antiviral nucleotide analogs cidofovir and adefovir are novel substrates for human and rat renal organic anion transporter 1. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Sep;56(3):570-80.
29 Cloning of the human kidney PAH transporter: narrow substrate specificity and regulation by protein kinase C. Am J Physiol. 1999 Feb;276(2):F295-303.
30 Human organic anion transporter hOAT3 is a potent transporter of cephalosporin antibiotics, in comparison with hOAT1. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Oct 1;70(7):1104-13.
31 Stoichiometry of organic anion/dicarboxylate exchange in membrane vesicles from rat renal cortex and hOAT1-expressing cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Oct;285(4):F775-83.
32 Interaction of cysteine conjugates with human and rabbit organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb;304(2):560-6.
33 Uraemic toxins induce proximal tubular injury via organic anion transporter 1-mediated uptake. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;135(2):555-63.
34 Interaction of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate with the human organic anion transporter hOAT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):741-7.
35 Molecular cloning and functional expression of a multispecific organic anion transporter from human kidney. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jan;276(1):F122-8.
36 Characterization of organic anion transport inhibitors using cells stably expressing human organic anion transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 May 11;419(2-3):113-20.
37 Transport of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin by human organic anion transporter 3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 4C1, and multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 May;321(2):673-83.
38 Methotrexate-loxoprofen interaction: involvement of human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004 Oct;19(5):369-74.
39 Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71.
40 Characterization of ochratoxin A transport by human organic anion transporters. Life Sci. 2001 Sep 21;69(18):2123-35.
41 Urate transport via human PAH transporter hOAT1 and its gene structure. Kidney Int. 2003 Jan;63(1):143-55.

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